Deep Sand Bed References

Sediment Biology References

Here are some references that deal with animal sediment relationships, sediment ecology, and sediment infauna.  Not all of them deal with coral reef sediments directly, however, this is not a problem as the animal-sediment interactions in all soft-sediment areas show a lot of similarities.

Aller, R. C. 1978. The effects of animal-sediment interactions on geological processes near the sediment-water interface. In: M. L. Wiley. Ed. Estuarine Interactions. Academic Press. New York. pp. 157-172.

Aller, R. C. 1983. The importance of the diffusive permeability of animal burrow linings in determining marine sediment chemistry. Journal of Marine Research. 41:299-322.

Aller, R. C. and J. Y. Yingst. 1985. Effects of the marine deposit-feeders Heteromastus filiformis (Polychaeta), Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) and Tellina texana (Bivalvia) on averaged sedimentary solute transport, reaction rates, and microbial distributions. Journal of Marine Research. 43:615-645.

Altenbach, A. V. 1992. Short term processes and patterns in the foraminiferal response to organic flux rates. Marine Micropaleontology. 19:119-129.

Ambrose, W. G. J. 1984. Influence of residents on the development of a marine soft-bottom community. Journal of Marine Research. 42:633-654.

Ambrose, W. G. J. 1984. Influences of predatory polychaetes and epibenthic predators on the structure of soft-bottom community in a Maine estuary. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 81:115-145.

Ambrose, W. G. J. 1984. Increased emigration of the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard) and the polychaete Nephtys caeca (Fabricius) in the presence of invertebrate predators. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 80:67-75.

Ambrose, W. G. J. 1984. Role of predatory infauna in structuring marine soft-bottom communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 17:109-115.

Ambrose, W. G. J. 1986. Influence of predatory infauna in marine soft-bottom communities: Reply to Wilson. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 32:41-45.

Ardisson, P.-L. and E. Bourget. 1990. Multivariate approach to study species assemblages at large spatiotemporal scales: the community structure of the epibenthic fauna of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 47:1364-1377.

Armstrong, J. W., R. M. Thom and K. K. Chew. 1980. Impact of a combined sewer overflow on the abundance, distribution, and community structure of subtidal benthos. Marine Environmental Research. 4:3-23.

Atlas, R. M., A. Horowitz and M. Busdosh. 1978. Prudhoe crude oil in Arctic marine ice, water, and sediment ecosystems: degradation and interactions with microbial and benthic communities. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 35:585-590.

Becker, D. S., G. R. Bilyard and T. C. Ginn. 1990. Comparisons between sediment bioassays and alterations of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at a marine superfund site: Commencement Bay, Washington. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 9:669-685.

Bell, S. S. and S. A. Woodin. 1984. Community unity: Experimental evidence for meiofauna and macrofauna. Journal of Marine Research. 42:605-632.

Bernhard, J. M. 1992. Benthic foraminiferal distribution and biomass related to pore-water oxygen content: Central California continental slope and rise. Deep-Sea Research. 39:585-605.

Biernbaum, C. K. 1979. Influence of sedimentary factors on the distribution of benthic amphipods of Fishers Island Sound, Connecticutt. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 38:201-223.

Boesch, D. F. 1977: Application of numerical classification in ecological investigations of water pollution. Special Scientific Report; 77 (Virginia Institute of Marine Science), EPS-600/3-77-033.

Boesch, D. F., R. J. Diaz and R. W. Virnstein. 1976. Effects of tropical storm Agnes on the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities of the James and York estuaries and the lower Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Science. 17:246-259.

Bonsdorff, E., J. Mattila, C. Rönn and C.-S. Österman. 1986. Multidimensional interactions in shallow soft-bottom ecosystems: testing the competitive exclusion principle. Ophelia, Suppl. 4:37-44.

Bornmalm, L., B. H. Corliss and K. Tedesco. 1997. Laboratory observations of rates and patterns of movement of continental margin benthic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology. 29:175-184.

Bowser, S. S. and J. M. Bernhard. 1993. Structure, bioadhesive distribution and elastic properties of the agglutinated test of Astrammina rara (Protozoa: Foraminiferida). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 40:121-131.

Brenchley, G. A. 1981. Disturbance and community structure: an experimental study of bioturbation in marine soft-bottom environments. Journal of Marine Research. 39:767-790.

Brenchley, G. A. 1982. Mechanisms of spatial competition in marine soft-bottom communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 60:17-33.

Britton, J. C. and B. Morton. 1993. Are there obligate marine scavengers? In: Morton, B. Ed. The Marine Biology of the South China Sea. Hong Kong University Press. Hong Kong. pp. 357-391.

Brown, B. 1982. Spatial and temporal distribution of a deposit-feeding polychaete in a heterogeneous tidal flat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 65:213-227.

Buckley, W. J. and J. P. Ebersole. 1994. Symbiotic organisms increase the vulnerability of a hermit crab to predation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 182:49-64.

Bulger, A. J., B. P. Hayden, M. E. Monaco, D. M. Nelson and M. G. McCormick-Ray. 1990. A proposed estuarine classification: analysis of species salinity ranges. ELMR Report Number 5. Strategic Assessment Branch, NOS/NOAA. Rockville, MD. 28pp.

Burd, B. J., A. Nemec and R. O. Brinkhurst. 1990. The development and application of analytical methods in benthic infaunal studies. Advances in Marine Biology. 26:169-247.

Burd, B. J., A. Nemec and R. O. Brinkhurst. 1990. The Development and Application of Analytical Methods in Benthic Marine Infaunal Studies. Advances in Marine Biology. 26:169-247.

Bussau, C., G. Schriever and H. Thiel. 1995. Evaluation of abyssal metazoan meiofauna from a manganese nodule area of the eastern South Pacific. Vie et Milieu. 45:39-48.

Butman, C. A. 1987. Larval settlement of soft-sediment invertebrates: The spatial scales of pattern explained by active habitat selection and the emerging role of hydrodynamical processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 25:113-165.

Cabioch, L. 1980. Pollution of subtidal sediments and disturbance of benthic animal communities. Ambio. 9:294-296.

Capone, D. G., S. E. Dunham, S. G. Horrigan and L. E. Duguay. 1992. Microbial nitrogen transformation in unconsolidated coral reef sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 80:75-88.

Carlson, D. J., D. W. Townsend, A. L. Hilyard and J. F. Eaton. 1984. Effect of an intertidal mudflat on plankton in the overlying water column. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 41:1523-1528.

Castel, J., P.-J. Labourg, V. Escaravage, I. Auby and M. E. Garcia. 1989. Influence of seagrass beds and oyster parks on the abundance and biomass patterns of meio- and macrobenthos in tidal flats. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 28:71-85.

Cedhagen, T. and S. Mattson. 1991. Globipelorhiza sublittoralis , new genus new species a komokiacean (Protozoa: Foraminiferida) from the Scandinavian sublittoral. Sarsia. 76:209-213.

Cedhagen, T. 1993. Taxonomy and biology of Pelosina arborescens with comparative notes on Astrorhiza limicola (Foraminiferida). Ophelia. 37:143-162.

Chen, C. W. and G. T. Orlob. 1977. The accumulation and significance of sludge near San Diego outfall. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation. 44:1362-1371.

Chesney Jr., E. J. 1985. Succession in soft-bottom benthic environments: are pioneering species really outcompeted? In: . . Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Marine Biology Symposium. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. pp. 277-286.

Chesney, E. J. J. and K. R. Tenore. 1985. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (Type I): their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 20:289-296.

Chevillon, C. 1996. Skeletal composition of modern lagoon sediments in New Caledonia: coral, a minor constituent. Coral Reefs. 15:199-207.

Clavier, J. 1984. Distribution verticale de la macrofaune benthique dans un sediment fin non exondable. Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 25:141-152.

Coates, M., H. F. Chapman and D. W. Connell. 1984. Effects of grazing by deposit feeders on biogenic hydrocarbons in coral-reef surface sediments. Marine Biology. 81:87-96.

Colin, P. L., T. H. Suchanek and G. M. McMurty. 1986. Water pumping and particulate resuspension by callianassids (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) at Enewetak and Bikini atolls, Marshall Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science. 38:19-24.

Coma, R., M. Ribes, C. Orejas and J.-M. Gili. 1999. Prey capture by a benthic coral reef hydrozoan. Coral Reefs. 18:141-145.

Commito, J. A. 1982. Importance of predation by infaunal polychaetes in controlling the structure of a soft-bottom community in Maine, USA. Marine Biology. 68:77-81.

Commito, J. A. and W. G. J. Ambrose. 1985. Multiple trophic levels in soft bottom communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 26:289-293.

Commito, J. A. and E. M. Boncavage. 1989. Suspension-feeders and coexisting infauna: an enhancement counter example. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 125:33-42.

Croker, R. A. and E. B. Hatfield. 1980. Space partitioning and interactions in an intertidal sand-burrowing amphipod guild. Marine Biology. 61:79-88.

Cronin, T. M. and M. E. Raymo. 1997. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity. Nature. 385:624-627.

Culver, S. J. and M. A. Buzas. 1995. The effects of anthropogenic habitat disturbance, habitat destruction, and global warming on shallow marine benthic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 25:204-211.

Dahlbäcck, B. and L. Å. H. Gunnarson. 1981. Sedimentation and sulfate reduction under a mussel culture. Marine Biology. 63:269-275.

Dale, N. G. 1974. Bacteria in intertidal sediments -- factors related to their distribution. Limnology and Oceanography. 19:509-518.

Dauer, D. M., C. A. Maybury and R. M. Ewing. 1981. Feeding behavior and general ecology of several spionid polychaetes from the Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 54:21-38.

Davis, P. H. and R. B. Spies. 1980. Infaunal benthos of a natural petroleum seep: study of community structure. Marine Biology. 59:31-41.

Davis, A. R., N. M. Targett, O. J. McConnell and C. M. Young. 1989. Epibiosis of marine algae and benthic invertebrates: natural products chemistry and other mechanisms inhibiting settlement and overgrowth. Bioorganic Marine Chemistry. 3:85-114.

Dayton, P. K. and J. S. Oliver. 1980. An evaluation of experimental analyses of population and community patterns in marine benthic environments. In : Tenore, K. R. and B. C. Coull. Eds. Marine benthic dynamics . University of South Carolina Press. Columbia, South Carolina. pp. 93-120.

Death, R. G. and M. J. Winterbourn. 1994. Environmental stability and community persistence: a multivariate perspective. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 13:125-139.

DeWitt, T. H., G. R. Ditsworth and R. C. Swartz. 1988. Effects of natural sediment features on survival of the phoxocephalid amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius . Marine Environmental Research. 25:99-124.

DeWitt, T. H. and J. S. Levinton. 1985. Disturbance, emigration, and refugia: How the mud snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say), affects the habitat distribution of an epifaunal amphipod, Microdeutopus gryllotoalpa (Costa). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 92:97-113.

Diaz, R. J. 1989. Pollution and tidal benthic communities of the James River estuary, Virginia. Hydrobiologia. 180:195-211.

Dijkstra, H. H. 1995. Bathyal Pectinoidea (Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Entoliidae, Pectinidae) from New Caledonia and adjacent areas. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 167:9-73.

Eckman, J. E. 1979. Small-scale patterns and processes in a soft-substratum, intertidal community. Journal of Marine Research. 37:437-457.

Eckman, J. E. 1983. Hydrodynamic processes affecting benthic recruitment. Limnology and Oceanography. 28:241-257.

Eckman, J. E. and A. R. M. Nowell. 1984. Boundary skin friction and sediment transport about an animal tube mimic. Sedimentology. 31:851-862.

Eckman, J. E., A. R. M. Nowell and P. A. Jumars. 1981. Sediment destabilization by animal tubes. Journal of Marine Research. 39:361-374.

Eldridge, P. M. and G. A. Jackson. 1993. Benthic trophic dynamics in California coastal basin and continental slope communities inferred using inverse analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 99:115-135.

Eleftheriou, A. and N. A. Holme. 1984. Macrofauna techniques. In : Holme, N. A. and A. D. McIntyre. Eds. Methods for the study of marine benthos . Blackwell Scientific Publications. London. P. 140.

Elliott, J. M. 1971. Some methods for the statistical analysis of samples of benthic invertebrates . Scientific Publication Number 25, Freshwater Biological Assn. Ferry House, UK. 148pp.

Elmgren, R., S. Ankar, B. Marteleur and G. Ejdung. 1986. Adult interference with postlarvae in soft sediments: the Pontoporeia - Macoma example. Ecology. 67:827-836.

Emery, K. O. 1938. Rapid method for analysis of sands. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 8:105-111.

Entch, B., K. G. Boto, R. G. Sim and J. T. Wellington. 1983. Phosphorus and nitrogen in coral reef sediments. Limnology and Oceanography. 28:465-476.

Ertman, S. C. and P. A. Jumars. 1988. Effects of bivalve siphonal currents on the settlement of inert particles and larvae. Journal of Marine Research. 46:797-813.

Evans, S. 1984. Energy budgets and predation impact of dominant epibenthic carnivores on a shallow soft bottom community at the Swedish west coast. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 18:651-672.

Evans, S. and B. Tallmark. 1984. Seasonal dynamics of small vagile predators on a marine shallow soft bottom. Holarctic Ecology. 7:138-148.

Evans, S. 1983. Production, predation and food niche segregation in a marine shallow soft-bottom community. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 10:147-157.

Fager, E. W. 1964. Marine sediments: Effects of a tube-building polychaete. Science. 143:356-359.

Feder, H. M. and T. H. Pearson. 1988. The benthic ecology of Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, a sea-loch system on the west coast of Scotland. V. Biology of the dominant soft-bottom epifauna and their interaction with the infauna. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 116:99-134.

Feder, H. M., A. S. Naidu, M. J. Hameedi, S. C. R. Jewett and W. Johnson (1989): Chuckchi Sea continental shelf: Benthos-environmental interactions. Report for the Minerals Management Service. (313 pp)

Ferraro, S. P., F. A. Cole, W. A. DeBen and R. C. Swartz. 1989. Power-cost efficiency of eight macrobenthic sampling schemes in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 46:2157-2165.

Frid, C. L. J. 1989. The role of recolonization processes in benthic communities, with special reference to the interpretation of predator-induced effects. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 126:163-171.

Friedman, G. M. ?? Case histories of coexisting reefs and terrigenous sediments: The Gulf of Elat (Red Sea), Java Sea, and Neogene basin of the Negev, Israel. In: Doyle and Roberts. Eds. Carbonate-Do Clastic Transitions. . . pp. 77-97.

Fromentin, J. M., F. Ibanez, J. C. Dauvin, J. M. Dewarumez and B. Elkaim. 1997. Long-term changes of four macrobenthic assemblages from 1978 to 1992. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 77:287-310.

Gallagher, E. D., P. A. Jumars and D. D. Trueblood. 1983. Facilitation of soft-bottom benthic succession by tube builders. Ecology. 64:1200-1216.

Gallagher, M. T. 1979. Substrate controlled biofacies: Recent foraminifera from the continental shelf and slope of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta. 206pp.

Gilinsky, E. 1984. The role of fish predation and spatial heterogeneity in determining benthic community structure. Ecology. 65:455-468.

Goldstein, S. T. and B. H. Corliss. 1994. Deposit feeding in selected deep-sea and shallow-water benthic foraminifera. Deep-Sea Research. 41:229-241.

Gooday, A. J. 1994. The biology of deep-sea foraminifera: A review of some advances and their applications in paleoceanography. Palaios. 9:14-31.

Gooday, A. J., S. S. Bowser and J. M. Bernhard. 1996. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Explorers Cove, Antarctica: A shallow-water site with deep-sea characteristics. Progress in Oceanography. 37:117-166.

Gooday, A. J. 1993. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species which exploit phytodetritus: Characteristic features and controls on distribution. Marine Micropaleontology. 22:187-205.

Gooday, A. J., J. M. Bernhard and S. S. Bowser. 1995. The taxonomy and ecology of Crithionina delacai sp. nov., an abundant large agglutinated foraminifer from Explorers Cove, Antarctica. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 25:290-298.

Gooday, A. J., J. A. Nott, S. Davis and S. Mann. 1995. Apatite particles in the test wall of the large agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon major (Protista). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 75:469-481.

Gooday, G. W., J. I. Prosser, K. Hillman and M. G. Cross. 1991. Mineralization of chitin in an estuarine sediment: The importance of the chitosan pathway. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 19:395-400.

Gooday, A. J., O. Pfannkuche and P. J. D. Lambshead. 1996. An apparent lack of response by metazoan meiofauna to phytodetritus deposition in the bathyal north-eastern Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 76:297-310.

Graf, G. 1992. Benthic-Pelagic Coupling: A benthic view. In : Barnes, M., A. D. Ansell and R. N. Gibson. Eds. Oceanography and Marine Biology, An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press. Aberdeen. pp. 149-190.

Grant, J. and G. Daborn. 1994. The effects of bioturbation on sediment transport on an intertidal mudflat. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. 32:63-72.

Grant, W. D. and C. A. Butman (1987): The effects of size class and bioturbation on fine-grained transport in coastal systems: Specific application to biogeochemistry of PCB transport in New Bedford Harbor. Sea Grant Program Report, 1984-1987. pp. 15-17.(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Grassle, J. P. and J. F. Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella (Polychaeta). Science. 192:567-569.

Grassle, J. P. and J. F. Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Journal of Marine Research. 32:253-284.

Gray, J. S. 1974. Animal-sediment relationships. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 12:223-261.

Gray, J. S. 1981. The ecology of marine sediments. Cambridge University Press. London. 185pp.

Gray, J. S. 1982. Objective selection of sensitive species indicative of pollution-induced change in benthic communities. I. Comparative methodology. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 9:111-119.

Gray, J. S. 1985. Nitrogenous excretion by meiofauna from coral reef sediments: Contribution No. 5 from the workshop Microbial Ecology of Coral Reefs. Marine Biology. 89:31-36.

Gray, J. S., M. Aschan, M. R. Carr, K. R. Clarke, R. H. Green, T. H. Pearson, R. Rosenberg and R. M. Warwick. 1988. Analysis of community attributes of the benthic macrofauna of Frierfjord/Langesundfjord and in a mesocosm experiment. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 46:151-165.

Grehan, A. J. 1990. Temporal sediment variability at a shallow bottom muddy sand site in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland: Some implications for larval recruitment. Océanis. 16:149-161.

Hall, S. J. 1994. Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: life in unconsolidated sediments. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 32:179-239.

Hall, S. J., D. J. Basford, M. R. Robertson, D. G. Raffaelli and I. Tuck. 1991. Patterns of recolonization and the importance of pit-digging by the crab Cancer pagurus in a subtidal sand habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 72:93-102.

Hansen, J. A., D. M. Alongi, D. J. W. Moriarity and P. C. Pollard. 1987. The dynamics of benthic microbial communities at Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Coral Reefs. 6:63-70.

Harrison, P. G. 1987. Natural expansion and experimental manipulation of seagrass (Zostera spp.) abundance and the response of infaunal invertebrates. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 24:799-812.

Hartley, J. P. 1984. The benthic ecology of the forties oilfield (North Sea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 80:164-195.

Hemleben, C. and H. Kitazato. 1995. Deep-sea foraminifera under long time observation in the laboratory. Deep-Sea Research. 42:827-832.

Henrichs, S. M. and W. S. Reeburgh. 1987. Anaerobic Mineralization of Marine Sediment Organic Matter: Rates and the Role of Anaerobic Processes in the Oceanic Carbon Economy. Geomicrobiology Journal. 5:191-237.

Hickman, C. S. and J. H. Lipps. 1983. Foraminiferivory: selective ingestion of foraminifera and test alterations produced by the neogastropod Olivella . Journal of Foraminiferan Research. 13:108-114.

Highsmith, R. C. 1982. Induced settlement and metamorphosis of sand dollar ( Dendraster excentricus ) larvae in predator-free sites: adult sand dollar beds. Ecology. 63:329-367.

Hines, A. H., M. H. Posey and P. J. Haddon. 1989. Effects of adult suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalves on recruitment of estuarine infauna. The Veliger. 32:109-119.

Hiss, J. M., S. R. Hager, J. L. Schroeder and E. E. Knudsen. 1990. Impact of beach gravel enhancement on epibenthic zooplankton at Lincoln Park, Seattle, Washington. Western Washington Fishery Resource Office. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Olympia, Washington. 33pp.

Hodgson, G. 1990. Sediment and the settlement of larvae of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. Coral Reefs. 9:41-43.

Holland, A. F., N. K. Mountford, M. H. Hiegel, K. R. Kaumeyer and J. A. Mihursky. 1980. Influence of predation on infaunal abundance in Upper Chesapeake Bay, U. S. A. Marine Biology. 57:221-235.

Houck, J. E., R. W. Buddemeier, S. V. Smith and P. L. Jokiel. 1977. The response of coral growth and skeletal strontium content to light intensity and water temperature. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Coral Reefs. 2:424-431.

Hulberg, L. W. and J. S. Oliver. 1980. Caging manipulations in marine soft-bottom communities: Importance of animal interactions or sedimentary habitat modifications. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 37:1130-1139.

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Jeffree, R. A. and R. Szymczak. 2000. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements.  Environmental Science and Technology. 34:1966-1969.

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Johnstone, R. W., K. Koop and A. W. D. Larkum. 1990. Physical aspects of coral reef lagoon sediments in relation to detritus processing and primary production. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 66:273-284.

Jonasson, K. E. and C. J. Schroder-Adams. 1996. Encrusting agglutinated foraminifera on indurated sediment at a hydrothermal venting area on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific Ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 26:137-149.

Jonasson, K. E., C. J. Schroder-Adams and R. T. Patterson. 1995. Benthic foraminiferal distribution at Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge, a northeast Pacific hydrothermal venting site. Marine Micropaleontology. 25:151-167.

Jumars, P. A. 1975. Environmental grain and polychaete species diversity in a bathyl benthic community. Marine Biology. 30:253-266.

Jumars, P. A. and A. R. M. Nowell. 1984. Effects of benthos on sediment transport: difficulties with functional grouping. Continental Shelf Research. 3:115-130.

Jumars, P. A. and A. R. M. Nowell. 1984. Fluid and sediment dynamic effects on marine benthic community structure. American Zoologist. 24:45-55.

Kemp, P. F., F. A. Cole and R. C. Swartz. 1985. Life history and productivity of the phoxocephalid amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard). Journal of Crustacean Biology. 5:449-464.

Kitazato, H. 1995. Recolonization by deep-sea benthic foraminifera: Possible substrate preferences. Marine Micropaleontology. 26:65-74.

Kneib, R. T. 1988. Testing for indirect effects of predation in an intertidal soft-bottom community. Ecology. 69:1795-1805.

Krumbein, W. C. and F. J. Pettijohn. 1938. Manual of Sediment Petrography. Appleton-Century Crofts Inc. New York. 549pp.

Lambshead, P. J. D. and A. J. Gooday. 1990. The impact of seasonally deposited phytodetritus on epifaunal and shallow infaunal benthic foraminiferal populations in the bathyal northeast Atlantic: The assemblage response. Deep-Sea Research. 37:1263-1284.

Lambshead, P. J. D. and M. Hodda. 1994. The impact of disturbance on measurements of variability in marine nematode populations. Vie et Milieu. 44:21-27.

Langer, M. W. and C. I. Bell. 1995. Toxic foraminifera: Innocent until proven guilty. Marine Micropaleontology. 24:205-214.

Lankford, R. R. and F. B. Phleger. 1973. Foraminifera from the nearshore turbulent zone, Western North America. Journal of Foraminiferan Research. 3:101-132.

Lappalainen, A. and P. Kangas. 1975. Littoral benthos of the northern Baltic Sea. II. Interrelationships of wet, dry and ash-free weights of macroinfauna in the Tvarminne area. Internationalle Review Gesamten Hydrobiologie. 60:297-312.

Lasker, H. R., M. D. Gottfried and M. A. Coffroth. 1983. Effects of depth on the feeding capabilities of two octocorals. Marine Biology. 73:73-78.

Leppäkoski, E. J. and L. S. Lindström. 1978. Recovery of benthic macrofauna from chronic pollution in the sea area off a refinery plant, southwest Finland. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 35:766-775.

Lewis, F. G., III and A. W. Stoner. 1981. An examination of methods for sampling macrobenthos in seagrass meadows. Bulletin of Marine Science. 31:116-124.

Lie, U. 1968. A quantitative study of benthic infauna in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A., in 1963-64. Fisk/Dir. Skr. (Ser. Havunders). 14:229-556.

Lie, U. 1974. Distribution and structure of benthic assemblages in Puget Sound, Washington, U. S. A. Marine Biology. 26:203-223.

Lie, U. and R. A. Evans. 1973. Long-term variability in the structure of subtidal benthic communities in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Marine Biology. 21:122-126.

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